5. Biological pest management: Thrips Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), are major pests in many protected crops . The larvae feed on all above ground parts of the plant and are extremely mobile . Damage symptoms • Thrips cause damage to the plant by piercing and sucking out cells on the leaf surface . This causes silver-gray spots on the leaves, with dark green spots (excretions) and reduces plant production . At high infection levels, leaves may even wither . • The most problematic virus transmitted by thrips is tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) . Methods of control Entonem • Entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema feltiae • Primary target: thrips pupae and larvae • Packaging: third stage nematode larvae in an inert carrying material Limonica • Predatory mite: Amblydromalus limonicus • Primary target: various thrips species in 1st and 2nd larval stage and glasshouse/greenhouse and tobacco whitefly eggs and larvae • Packaging: nymphs and adults bottled with inert carrying material Macro-Mite • Predatory mite: Macrocheles robustulus • Primary target: thrips pupae + eggs, larvae and pupae of sciarid flies, Lyprauta larvae Predatory mites: Adult predatory mites actively search for their prey and suck them dry . Predatory bugs: Adults and nymphs pierce thrips larvae and adults with their sucking mouthparts and suck out the contents . • Packaging: all stages in cardboard tube with inert carrying material Mycotal Solutions Entomite-M • Predatory mite: Stratiolaelaps scimitus • Primary target: thrips eggs and larvae • Packaging: all stages with inert carrying material in bottles or buckets • Entomopathogenic fungus: Lecanicillium muscarium • Primary target: whitefly larvae • Packaging: wettable powder in bag in box Addit • Adjuvant for improved effect of different chemical and biological products, such as Mycotal and Linafer-P 14 Pagina 13

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